The Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (also known as CMS or Bonn Convention after the German city in which it was signed) aims to conserve terrestrial, aquatic and avian migratory species throughout their range. The intergovernmental treaty, concluded under the aegis of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), provides a global platform for the conservation of wildlife and their habitats on a global scale. Since the Convention's entry into force, its membership has grown to include 122 Signatory States from Africa, Central and South America, Asia, Europe and Oceania. 

The Convention covers many iconic migratory species which are being heavily affected by the illegal trade in wildlife, such as elephants, gorillas, snow leopards, saiga antelopes, marine turtles, sharks and several species of birds. CMS brings together the international community to address the wide range of threats these wild animals face on their annual migrations, including the threat posed by the illegal trade.