IUCN plays a key role in addressing illegal wildlife trade through mobilising its expertise as a convenor, as a specialist advisor and through its on-the-ground conservation work. In addition to IUCN’s membership meeting every four years at the World Conservation Congress, to devise solutions to illegal wildlife trade, IUCN convenes dialogue on specific issues relating to wildlife crime. For example in 2015, IUCN’s Commission on Environmental, Economic and Social Policy and the Species Survival Commission’s (SSC) Sustainable Use and Livelihoods Specialist Group (SULi) led the organisation of a symposium ‘Beyond enforcement: communities, governance, incentives and sustainable use in combatting wildlife crime, in South Africa, which was attended by community representatives, researchers, government officials, UN agencies and NGOs from five continents, and subsequent events are being held in Central Africa and Asia. IUCN’s SSC has more than 11,000 experts who provide objective advice and scientific information on species affected by illegal wildlife trade. This enables IUCN to support conservation efforts on species ranging from elephants, rhinos and pangolins, to tigers, bears, scorpions, cycads, orchids, seahorses, and chameleons, and is especially helpful to CITES. IUCN also implements on-the-ground conservation work. Through the Save Our Species (SOS) Fund, IUCN provides funding to field-based conservation projects and has committed over USD 3.5 million to 26 projects to support anti-poaching activities on a wide range of species in priority sites for conservation. IUCN’s Integrated Tiger and Habitat Conservation Programme (ITHCP), has also mobilised approximately €12 million to projects on tiger conservation, including anti-poaching efforts.